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Learn how the car winch works and types

Hits:Updated:2018-06-22 11:06:55【Print】

The winch is a device for self-protection and traction of off-road vehicles. It can perform vehicle self-rescue in harsh environments such as snow, swamps, deserts, beaches, and muddy mountain roads, and may perform operations such as removing obstacles, hauling articles, and installing facilities under other conditions. .
 
1. Type of winch
 
The common winch according to the winch motive power different mechanical winch, electric winch, hydraulic winch and wheel winch four, its characteristics are as follows.
 
(1) Mechanical winch: The power source uses the output power of the transfer case as the power source. Advantages: It can continuously provide large pulling force, long single use time (without heat problem), can provide multi-direction pulling force (front, rear, even left and right), and is the best choice for military vehicles or serious high-performance off-road; The engine power must be used, that is, it cannot be used when the engine cannot be operated due to water intake or the like; the splitter cannot be used even if it loses the driving force in the winch direction.
 
(2) Electric winch: Power source, driven by the vehicle's own power system. Advantages: It can be used normally under the condition that the vehicle is out of flame (this is its biggest advantage, and it is also unmatched by other winches). It is especially advantageous for areas with a lot of water. The simple installation can realize multi-position installation and rapid shifting. It is a winch that is most commonly used in off-road vehicles; its disadvantage is that it cannot be used for a long period of time (caused by the limitations of the vehicle's own power system, its own tendency to heat, etc.). Most electric winches can provide only a small driving force and can only be used in one direction. Apply force (can only be pulled forward in front of the car, only backward when installed in the back).
 
(3) Hydraulic winch: Power source, using the power/power steering system of the vehicle as its power source, using the power steering pump to provide the source power. Advantages, easy installation, due to the general realization of the external fixed part of the general, even in the field can be achieved interchange, driving power between the electric and mechanical winch, the chance of high temperature is extremely rare; shortcomings, and mechanical winch, must The use of engine driving force means that the engine must be kept rotating and once the power steering system fails, it cannot be used (in some off-road situations, the power steering system is vulnerable to external damage).
 
(4) Wheel winch: The power source, which is provided by the wheel axles, is based on the principle of using 4 of the 6 fixing bolts of most off-road wheels for fixing the winch. The advantage, this is a relatively new winch system, extremely easy to install and remove (and change the tire is a step), very light weight (lighter than any other winch, will not be deadly extra weight by the front suspension) ), The price is cheap, can provide both directions of pull before and after; Shortcomings, because its power point is the axle, so the location is too low, resulting in some conditions can not be used, but also must use the engine power.
 
2, the structure and working principle of the winch
 
1) The structure of the winch
The
Take the electric winch, the most commonly used electric winch on an SUV, for example. It consists of an electric motor, a steel cable, a winch drum, a fairlead, a transmission mechanism, a brake system, a clutch, a control unit, and a controller. The electric motor is driven by the vehicle's battery, which transmits power to the mechanical transmission device, and then drives the winch drum to rotate and wind the cable. The original design bearing capacity of the steel cable determines its diameter and length, and the cable is wound on the winch drum. And through the fairlead, the end of the ring into a ring to connect the anchor hook; winch drum is a cylindrical device winding wire rope, which is driven by the motor, the winch cylinder under the control of the remote control can change the direction of rotation; When using a winch with a fixed angle, the fairlead will guide the cable around the winch drum, which will reduce the risk of possible damage to the winch support or bumper when the cable is reclaimed, and is often fixed outside the winch frame or bumper. The transmission mechanism consists of three sets of planetary gears, which converts the energy generated by the motor into powerful traction. The design of the transmission system makes the winch light and compact. The function of the braking system is when the motor stops working and the steel cable is loaded. Lock the drum automatically to prevent loosening and slipping of the cable and place the car in place. The clutch can be operated by hand to change the disengagement or locking of the drum and drive system. State, thus changing the state of the drum idling or locked with the drive system; the control unit converts the power of the car battery through the electromagnetic coil to kinetic energy, enabling the operator to change the direction of rotation of the winch drum, and some winches solidify the control box. In the winch structure, some of them can be integrated independently, installed in place as needed, and the electric winch operates under high load. Therefore, the control unit uses a high-load control system to cope with strong current; the controller is inserted in the winch control unit. Freely control the direction of rotation of the winch drum. It allows the operator to stay away from the steel cable when operating the winch, avoiding danger.
 
(2) Working principle of electric winch
 
The electric winch is to obtain the power from the car battery to drive the electric motor, and then the electric motor drives the drum to rotate, the drum wheel also drives the driving shaft, and the driving shaft drives the planetary gears, thereby generating a strong torque. Later, the torque is transmitted back to the drum, and the drum drives the winch. There is a clutch between the motor and the reducer, which can be switched by a handle. The brake unit is inside the drum and the drum locks automatically when the rope is tight.
 
The power of the winch motor is very small, at most only 3~4kW. How can such a low-power motor drag a heavy muddy car? The secret gear on the winch is working. Even if the motor can only send a small force, it can be turned into a powerful force through the reducer. Most winches use planetary gears as reducers. Its advantage is that the smaller gears produce a relatively large reduction ratio, and they have more contact points and a longer service life. Winches are usually installed in a narrow space, so the smaller and lighter the better. Planetary gears can meet this requirement while producing a large reduction ratio.
 
The hauling force of the winch has a direct relationship with the length of the winch to pull out. The force is greatest when the winch is pulled. After each turn of the winch, the pull force is reduced. The longer the twist pull, the weaker the pull.
 
In practical use, some auxiliary items are essential for safe and smooth use of the winch, such as gloves to protect the hand. In addition, if you want to fix the winch to a tree, you also need a strap, a U-shaped lifting lug, and a tight wire pulley. The strap is used to fix the fulcrum. The ideal length is 1.5~2.Om; the U-shaped lug can connect the hook with the strap and the winch, so it is better to prepare several lifting lugs of several sizes; when using two or three lines to change the pull direction, you need one. Tight pulley. Manipulating the winch can be described in three simple steps: installation, fixing the fulcrum, and dragging.
 
3, the purchase of winch
 
1) see pull
 
The Arabic numbers in the winch model indicate the maximum pulling force. For example, the RUNVA GEW 9000 refers to the maximum pulling force of 9,000 pounds (1 pound to 0.45 kg). The principle of the winch is generally 1.5 times the weight of the vehicle's weight. If the Cherokee's own weight is 1600kg, then the winch's tension should not be less than (2000/0.45) × 1.5-5333 lbs. It is recommended to use 8,000 lbs and above winches. Why? Because the winch model nominal is the maximum tension, but in practice it is a limit. If the vehicle is used at the limit of the engine for a long time, it will inevitably affect the life. Also in the limit state, the winch will have the accident that the wire rope is broken and the motor burns out. In serious cases, it will cause damage to the bystanders, and the vehicle may also be out of control. The pull that the winch can withstand during work is random and unpredictable, so installing a winch with as much pull as possible will be an endless pursuit for off-road enthusiasts. For example, the location, angle, support, and load of the saved vehicle must be considered.
 
2) Look at the motor
 
The same is the electric winch, there are two kinds of power part (namely the electric motor), namely the permanent magnet motor and the string magnetic motor. The former has the characteristics of fast movement, high power, suitable for long time rolling and high cost, while the latter is a traditional form with small current, classical, simple structure and low cost. Early RAMSEY winches used permanent magnet motors. Nowadays, the storage capacity of vehicles is large, so the current high-power motors of the off-road vehicle winch use serial motor. Judging whether a winch is a permanent magnet motor or a string magnet motor, it is understandable by looking at the number of lines output from the control box to the motor section. The two lines are permanent magnet motors, and the three lines are string magnet motors.
 
3) Look at the brand
 
The internationally famous winch brands include RAMSEY, WARN, and SUPERWINCH. The American RAMSEY started making winches as early as World War II, but the SUV winch was only a small part of its professional winch device. The oWARN is also an American brand. Founded in 1948, it used its axle clutch to make "World War II" the rest of the time. The jeep can easily be driven on the road. Later WARN added the winch to its professional accessories. Its products are mainly sold as ARB brand off-road vehicles accessories. SUPERWINCH has a history of only 30 years and is a small and complete winch plate factory.
 
In China, the Jinrun brand occupies a large part of the market, and it also serves as a sponsor of the Malaysian international competitions and has become an international marketplace professional. In fact, RUNVA winch and group company's "JULONG" hardware and "TIGER" winch, occupy Japan, Germany, the United States, Canada, Southeast Asia and other international hot markets, the company IS09002 quality assurance system certification, a variety of winches with patent ownership , Products have passed CE certification. Others such as T-MAX, Dongfeng, LianDa, Tianshun and other manufacturers follow up, share Southeast Asia, Russia and the Middle East market, and supply a small amount for the domestic market.
 
4) Look at the price
 
In China, the retail price of an imported winch is basically 1 yuan/lb, which means that if you want to give a Grand Cherokee a winch, you have to spend 9,500 yuan, which is about 1/40 of the car price, and basically it is acceptable. However, those hardcore fans can be disproportionate with the 2020 winch: a used BJ2020 has less than 10,000 yuan, which means that the price of an imported winch is almost equal to his car money.
 
Domestic brand winches have obvious advantages in terms of price. For example, if RUNVA guarantees the same performance as the previous year, the price is only 1/3 of the product winch, and the latest improved series magnet motor GEW or NEW series winch is only half the price of the imported winch. The actual discount sales price for more winches has been on the Internet, and it has been sold at a bargain price.
 
Another factor that must be taken into account is the maintenance and repair of the winch. When domestic winches are used, this part of the cost can be effectively controlled to a very low level. The imported winch has very few channels because of parts, and the cost is high and the cycle is long. There is no advantage. Words.
 
4, the installation of the winch
 
The same level of winch installation dimensions are the same, trays and other accessories can be universal. There are three types of winch installations: external, hidden, and quick-mounted.
 
1) External type
The
The external type is to install the winch directly outside the bumper. Branded off-road vehicles such as the Jeep Wrangler and BJ2020, because the front bumper protrudes from the body, so there is more freedom to install space, as long as the tray is fixed on the bumper, you can fix the winch directly on the tray. This installation gives the winch exposure and the car looks masculine.
 
2) hidden
The
The hidden type is to install the winch inside the bumper. Luxury SUVs such as the Grand Cherokee require a coordinated appearance. Off-road vehicle accessories factory designed a special bumper for it, and the winch can be installed inside. Since the special bumper is also very beautiful in appearance, this hidden installation also increases the momentum of the SUV. The same applies to the Paladin models. The built-in concealed winch must be installed using the original winch mounting platform to maintain its original vehicle style.
 
3) Quick installation
The
The portable winch is equipped with a quick-fit mechanism that allows quick installation on the vehicle. The Hummingbird SUV Club in Beijing once organized a difficult team off-road activity - collectively crossing the no man's land in Tibet. In this young landform in northern Tibet, roads can disappear at any time and oil supply cannot be guaranteed. The team must carry as much fuel and living necessities as possible. If each vehicle carries a 50kg weight winch, it means that each vehicle's driving range will be reduced by at least 300km. In the mountains above 6000m above sea level, this is a fatal danger. In order to implement the necessary self-help and mutual rescue, the team only brought two winches. How to make these two winches to complete the rescue of 7 vehicles? The front and rear bumpers of each car of the team are equipped with a square interface, which is the universal caliber of off-road vehicles in the world. Just plug the winch into this connector. It will be able to complete the rescue. This is the application of the quick-mounted winch. Another use of this universal interface is to dock trailers.
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